CHEESE-MAKING WATER SOURCES





When making cheese at home, you want to use water that has been de-chlorinated - here is a description of the types of water (and whether they are suitable for cheese-making, or not).
      
HARD WATER
All water in lakes, springs, rivers, on the ground and in deep wells is hard water. It contains calcium, iron and magnesium and many other inorganic minerals. Soft water contains smaller amounts of inorganic minerals. 
NOT SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING
  
TAP WATER
In Australia, the Water Corporation collects water from around 60 dams and weirs (and 94 borefields) and 2 desalination plants. The water is then treated according to Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and Department of Health requirements by adding fluoride (to improve dental health, set by DoH) and chlorine (used as a disinfectant) before being sent Australia-wide via 34,424km of water mains to over 1 million properties. The Water Corporation’s first groundwater replenishment scheme - treating wastewater to drinking water standards - is due to be completed by the end of 2016. 14 billion litres of recycled water (treated at the Beenyup Wastewater Treatment Plant to remove chemicals and microorganisms including bacteria, nutrients, detergents, oils, pesticides and heavy metals) is expected to be put back into the Perth groundwater supplies via the Leederville and Yarragadee aquifers.
NOT SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING
  
BOILED WATER
Boiling water is often thought to remove fluoride and chlorine; however all it does is concentrate the inorganic minerals. Boiling water makes it safer to drink by killing microorganisms, however it still requires filtering or resting overnight (after boiling) to remove the chlorine. Boiling does not remove fluoride.
MAY BE SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING
  
FILTERED WATER
Water that has passed through a filter (a fine strainer) is called filtered water. Calcium and other solid substances are caught by the filter; however it does not prevent germs from passing through. Filters often make the water taste better and smell better, and remove chlorine, toxins and lead. Activated carbon filters do not remove fluoride. Home filtering systems need to be kept clean and replaced as required. Home filters can get clogged up, which makes an ideal bacteria breeding ground.
MAY BE SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING
  
REVERSE OSMOSIS WATER
Pre-filtered water is purified via reverse osmosis by being forced (via pressure) through a semi-permeable membrane to remove most impurities. 
SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING
  
DE-IONISED WATER
Water that has had almost all of its mineral ions removed is known as deionised water. These mineral ions include sodium, calcium, iron, copper, chloride and sulphate.
SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING
  
DISTILLED WATER
Also known as demineralised water, distilled water is simply water that has been turned into steam, leaving impurities and then turned back into pure water via condensation. Distilled water is the purest form of water. 
SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING
  
BOTTLED SPRING WATER
Spring water is underground water that naturally rises to the surface and is then collected at a spring or a borehole. The water is treated before bottling but remains with the same physical properties and quality. Fluoride and/or chlorine are not usually added but check the label before use.
MAY BE SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING
  
BOTTLED STILL WATER
Bottled tap water that might be slightly filtered to remove chlorine is now being sold as bottled still water, on the supermarket shelves amongst expensive brands of spring water – but at a fraction of the cost! Fluoride and/or chlorine might be present so check the label before use.
MAY BE SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING
  
RAIN WATER
The first few drops of rain are distilled water, however after that, rain collects dust, smoke, germs, lead and other atmospheric chemicals, often making it yellowish in appearance. Air pollution = drinking water pollution = treatment required before drinking. Rain water collected at home in rainwater tanks requires filtering or boiling before use.
NOT SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING
  
RAW WATER
Raw water is water that has not been boiled or treated. It can be hard or soft (high or low in minerals) and contains millions of microorganisms. 
NOT SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING
  
SNOW WATER
Snow is frozen rain. The freezing process does not remove germs, and all snowflakes contain inorganic minerals, dirt, germs and viruses.
NOT SUITABLE FOR CHEESE-MAKING

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