Types of Preserves

Chutney
Made from fruit and vegetables, chopped up with sugar, vinegar and spices. Chutneys vary in consistency - the fruit can be finely diced or in larger pieces. 
   
Conserves
A thick spread that contains several types of fruit, and sometimes has dried fruit or nuts added. Some also have pectin added to make a jel-like finish. 
   
Fruit
Firm, fresh fruit can be preserved in water, fruit juice or syrup (liquids vary for different fruits). Some fruits are preserved whole (ie berries, grapes) or cut into pieces before preserving in the liquid.
    
Fruit Butter
Fruit puree (or pulp) cooked down over a long time until of a thick, spreadable consistency. Has sugar, lemon juice and spices added. No pectin. 
   
Fruit Cordials
Made from fruit juice, sugar and water, these concentrates are mixed with water, mineral water or soda before serving. 
   
Fruit Curd
Usually made from citrus zest and citrus juice (one citrus fruit or a combination), with eggs, sugar and butter. Not suitable for canning but can be stored in the refrigerator for 2-3 weeks (or frozen).
     
Fruit Juice
Juice extracted from fresh fruit, sometimes sweetened with a little sugar before canning. 
     
Fruit Pie Filling
Sliced fruit, sugar, spices and regular/cook-type ClearJel (modified cornstarch) heated together until thick and then bottled. No other thickeners are suitable for canning.  
   
Fruit Puree
Fresh fruit and sometimes lemon juice, simmered with a little bit of water until cooked. Puree in a blender, food processor or masher before canning.
 
Fruit Sauce
Fruit puree, sugar and sometimes spices cooked together. A thick, sweet, fruit-based sauce mainly used for flavouring food. 
  
Jam
Made from crushed, or pureed fruit/s cooked with sugar, lemon juice and often pectin. Jam does not contain big pieces of fruit. 
   
Jelly
Clear appearance when held against a light and does not contain pieces of fruit. Jelly is made from a combination of fruit juice/s, sugar, pectin and lemon juice. Jelly has a smooth texture, is firm and holds it's shape but does "wobble".
   
Marmalade
A sweet yet tart soft jelly that is similar to jam, but contains at least one (if not many) types of citrus fruit. The rind is suspended in the jelly.
   
Mincemeat
A mixture of chopped dried fruits, apples, alcohol (usually a combination of apple cider, rum and brandy) and spices. Cooked down until thick. Mincemeat originally contained meat, fruit, vinegar and wine and modern mincemeat is more of a sweet type of preserve, than the traditional savoury type.
      
Mustard
Dried mustard seeds combined with vinegar, salt, lemon, salt, spices and sometimes other ingredients. Mixed together for a wholegrain mustard, or blend for a smoother paste. Mustard can be dark brown to yellow in colour.
   
Pickles
Traditionally pickling cucumbers in a vinegar/water/salt/sugar solution and sometimes spices added. Pickles can also be other vegetables, still in a similar solution. 
   
Preserves
Similar to jam but the fruit is in large pieces and is suspended in the syrup. 
   
Relish
One or more types of vegetables, finely diced and cooked together. Relish does not have a smooth sauce consistency as it is not pureed. It can be sweet or savoury, mild or hot, but has a strong flavour that enhances food it is served alongside.
   
Salsa
Usually tomato-based, this chunky sauce mainly contains chopped tomatoes, lime or lemon juice, onion, chilli and cilantro (coriander). There are lots of types of salsa, including fruit salsas.
   
Savoury Sauces (Condiments)
A sauce that is served alongside food to boost flavour. It has a smooth consistency and can be mild or spicy. ie ketchup, barbecue sauce and teriyaki sauce.
     
Sweet Sauces
Thickened syrups, by either reducing the syrup or adding a thickener such as ClearJel (flour is not safe for canning).
       
Syrups
A combination of water, fruit juice and sugar with a very thin, watery consistency.

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