TYPES OF PRESERVES

CHUTNEY: Made from fruit and vegetables, chopped up with sugar, vinegar and spices. Chutneys vary in consistency - the fruit can be finely diced or in larger pieces. 
 
CONSERVES: A thick spread that contains several types of fruit, and sometimes has dried fruit or nuts added. Some also have pectin added to make a gel-like finish. 
 
FRUIT: Firm, fresh fruit can be preserved in water, fruit juice or syrup (liquids vary for different fruits). Some fruits are preserved whole (i.e. berries, grapes) or cut into pieces before preserving in the liquid. 
 
FRUIT BUTTER: Fruit puree (or pulp) cooked down over a long time until of a thick, spreadable consistency. Has sugar, lemon juice and spices added. No pectin. 
 
FRUIT CORDIALS: Made from fruit juice, sugar and water, these concentrates are mixed with water, mineral water or soda before serving. 
 
FRUIT CURD: Usually made from citrus zest and citrus juice (one citrus fruit or a combination), with eggs, sugar, and butter. Not suitable for canning but can be stored in the refrigerator for 2-3 weeks (or frozen). 
 
FRUIT JUICE: Juice extracted from fresh fruit, sometimes sweetened with a little sugar before canning. 
 
FRUIT PIE FILLING: Sliced fruit, sugar, spices, and regular/cook-type ClearJel (modified corn starch) heated together until thick and then bottled. No other thickeners are suitable for canning. 
 
FRUIT PUREE: Fresh fruit and sometimes lemon juice, simmered with a little bit of water until cooked. Puree in a blender, food processor or masher before canning. 
 
FRUIT SAUCE: Fruit puree, sugar and sometimes spices cooked together. A thick, sweet, fruit-based sauce mainly used for flavouring food. 
 
JAM: Made from crushed or pureed fruit/s cooked with sugar, lemon juice and often pectin. Jam does not contain big pieces of fruit. 
 
JELLY: Clear appearance when held against a light and does not contain pieces of fruit. Jelly is made from a combination of fruit juice/s, sugar, pectin, and lemon juice. Jelly has a smooth texture, is firm and holds its shape but does "wobble". 
 
MARMALADE: A sweet yet tart soft jelly that is like jam but contains at least one (if not many) types of citrus fruit. The rind is suspended in the jelly. 
 
MINCEMEAT: A mixture of chopped dried fruits, apples, alcohol (usually a combination of apple cider, rum, and brandy) and spices. Cooked down until thick. Mincemeat originally contained meat, fruit, vinegar and wine and modern mincemeat is more of a sweet type of preserve, than the traditional savoury type. 
 
MUSTARD: Dried mustard seeds combined with vinegar, salt, lemon, salt, spices and sometimes other ingredients. Mixed for a wholegrain mustard, or blended for a smoother paste. Mustard can be dark brown to yellow in colour. 
 
PICKLES: Traditionally pickling cucumbers in a vinegar/water/salt/sugar solution and sometimes spices added. Pickles can also be other vegetables, still in a similar solution. 
 
PRESERVES: Like jam but the fruit is in large pieces and is suspended in the syrup. 
 
RELISH: One or more types of vegetables, finely diced and cooked together. Relish does not have a smooth sauce consistency as it is not pureed. It can be sweet or savoury, mild or hot, but has a strong flavour that enhances food it is served alongside. 
 
SALSA: Usually tomato-based, this chunky sauce mainly contains chopped tomatoes, lime or lemon juice, onion, chilli and cilantro (coriander). There are lots of types of salsas, including fruit salsas. 
 
SAVOURY SAUCES (CONDIMENTS): A sauce that is served alongside food to boost flavour. It has a smooth consistency and can be mild or spicy. i.e. ketchup, barbecue sauce and teriyaki sauce. 
 
SWEET SAUCES: Thickened syrups, by either reducing the syrup or adding a thickener such as ClearJel (flour is not safe for canning). 
 
SYRUPS: A combination of water, fruit juice and sugar with a very thin, watery consistency.
 
Author: Megan Radaich          
Image Credit: Megan Radaich          
Publication: www.foodpreserving.org
   


Share the knowledge of home food preservation!

Copyright
Copyright © 2023 Megan Radaich. All rights reserved.
Except as permitted under the Australian Copyright Act of 1968, no part of this website may be reproduced or utilised in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the author. Disclaimer
 
Acknowledgement 
Kaya Wanjoo. Food Preserving kaditj kalyakoorl moondang-ak kaaradj midi boodjar-ak nyininy, yakka wer waabiny, Noongar moort. Ngala kaditj baalap kalyakoorl nidja boodjar wer kep kaaradjiny, baalap moorditj nidja yaakiny-ak wer moorditj moort wer kaditj Birdiya wer yeyi.
Hello and Welcome. Food Preserving acknowledges the Traditional Custodians of the land on which we live, work and play, the Nyoongar people. We recognise their connection to the land and local waterways, their resilience and commitment to community and pay our respect to Elders past and present.