A superfood that is harvested from an Amazon palm tree (grown in Brazil). They have a chocolate/berry flavour and are packed with antioxidants (more than any other berry), amino acids and essential fatty acids.
An organic compound (chemical formula CH3COOH) that is an acidic, transparent liquid that gives vinegar a sour flavour. Vinegar usually contains 4-6% acetic acid (the rest is mainly water with some trace elements). Acetic acid is used as a food preserving ingredient when food is lower in acidity (has a high pH).
A compound or substance that contains acid (or has acidic properties), including a sour flavour and a pH below 4.6 for home canning. This pH level will turn certain dyes red (i.e. litmus testing). Vinegar contains an acid called acetic acid; another common preserving ingredient is citric acid. Acids may naturally occur in the ingredients or be added to the recipe to increase the acidity and reduce the chance of spoilage occurring. All water bath canning recipes are acidic, either naturally or with an acidic ingredient added. Acidic preserves include bottled fruits, tomatoes, pickled vegetables (including fermented vegetables), jam, jelly, marmalade, chutney, relish, salsa and more. Follow specific preserving recipes to ensure food safety.
The distance (height) of your location to sea level, measured in metres or feet. Processing charts in preserving recipes will list different times (plus different pressure levels for pressure canning) because water boils differently when comparing low and high altitudes. 
Potassium aluminium sulfate, also known as potassium alum, potash alum, or alum. The chemical formula for alum is KAl(SO4)2 and it naturally occurs on rocks after weathering (oxidation) of sulfide and potassium minerals. Previously used in vintage preserving recipes to create firm, crunchy pickles, alum is no longer recommended as it may cause digestive issues. If food has been prepared with alum, it requires rinsing in fresh clean water several times prior to consumption. Our recipes do not recommend using alum.
Substances that reduce oxidation (browning) of fruit that is light coloured, like apples and pears. Antioxidants that might be added to preserving recipes include ascorbic acid (i.e. vitamin C powder) and/or citric acid (i.e. citric acid powder, lemon juice or lime juice). These antioxidants also increase acidity (lower the pH) to assist with food preservation.
Non-nutritive sweeteners used as a sugar alternative, including aspartame, cyclamate, monk fruit extract, saccharin, stevia and sucralose. These synthetic sweeteners are usually much sweeter than sugar but each vary in sweetness level (and to your taste/preference). Sucralose and stevia-based sweeteners are heat stable and may be used in fruit canning recipes (water bath canning). Saccharin or aspartame-based sweeteners are best added prior to serving (i.e. sweeten fruit after opening a jar) as sweeteners can change during processing (during the boiling water bath), resulting in bitter or undesirable flavour changes in your sweetened preserved food. We recommend testing a small batch for your home canning project to see which sweetener and quantity you prefer, as directed in each water bath canning recipe.
Also known as l-ascorbic acid or ascorbate, ascorbic acid is the chemical name for vitamin C. Ascorbic acid is present in a high level in lemon juice, which is why it is commonly added to prevent oxidation (browning) of light-coloured fruits, like apples and pears. Pure vitamin C powder (no additives or flavour added) is available from pharmacies and online suppliers (which may stock a crystal form of ascorbic acid).
Microscopic sized microorganisms that are found in nature (soil, water and air). Some bacteria is used to ferment food, i.e. making sauerkraut. Other types of bacteria can be harmful when they are present in low-acid food because when they quickly multiply, they can cause disease, food spoilage and/or produce mycotoxins which are only destroyed at a high temperature (116°C/240°F) for a specific time. This temperature cannot be achieved in a water bath canner, which is why it is important that food is high acid (pH 4.6 or less) before being preserved in a water bath canner, and low acid food is preserved in a pressure canner.
Part of a two-piece jar lid, i.e. mason jar bands. Bands are threaded, and screw onto the jar rim, holding the flat metal seal onto the jar (especially important when jars of preserves are being processed). After jars have cooled down (usually 12-24 hours after processing), bands are removed from the jars as the vacuum seal created during processing holds the flat seal part of the lid onto the jar tightly.
Author: Megan Radaich            
Image Credit: Megan Radaich            
Kaya Wanjoo. Food Preserving kaditj kalyakoorl moondang-ak kaaradj midi boodjar-ak nyininy, yakka wer waabiny, Noongar moort. Ngala kaditj baalap kalyakoorl nidja boodjar wer kep kaaradjiny, baalap moorditj nidja yaakiny-ak wer moorditj moort wer kaditj Birdiya wer yeyi.
Hello and Welcome. Food Preserving acknowledges the Traditional Custodians of the land on which we live, work and play, the Nyoongar people. We recognise their connection to the land and local waterways, their resilience and commitment to community and pay our respect to Elders past and present.
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